Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age: the Celts

Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age: the Celts

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Tom Rogic scored Celtic’s second goal. Getty Images Brendan Rodgers’ side led with goals from Rogic and Scott Sinclair from the first leg against the Northern Irish part-timers at Windsor Park, and the return encounter was even more one-sided. Sinclair opened the scoring in the fourth-minute while Rogic added a second two minutes after half-time before Sinclair grabbed his second with another strike. Substitute Stuart Armstrong added a fourth in additional time to book the Scottish champions’ place against the Eliteserien league leaders, who overcame Dundalk but only after extra-time.

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She was both Pagan goddess and early Christian saint. St Brigid established a monastery in AD, probably at the location of a former pagan sacred site. Kildare Cathedral developed from this monastery in the early 13th century and is unusual in Ireland for being Anglican. Within the graveyard is the only surviving round tower in Ireland that you can climb. The Brigidine Sisters, who maintain her perpetual flame, are a shining light for peace and have recently opened a new centre that we will visit when we go to meet them.

We explore the legends as well as the ruins and take time to walk in the natural woodland that was home to this spiritual retreat. We travel through the stunning high moorland scenery of the Wicklow Gap to visit two stone circles within a sacred landscape.

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The earliest true Celtic idiom in the area of arts and crafts was the Hallstatt culture. This derived from the type-site situated in Salzkammergat a salt mine region , near the village of Halstaat in Austria, and lasted from roughly to BCE. Although centred around Austria, the Hallstatt culture spread across central Europe, divided into two zones:

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On the one hand, the Celts – who were by no means pacifists – must have arrived in sufficiently large numbers to obliterate the existing culture in Ireland within a few hundred years. On the other hand, other better documented invasions of Ireland – such as the Viking invasions of the 7th and 8th centuries AD – failed to have the effect of changing the culture on an islandwide scale.

Some have postulated that, as the Romans invaded and took control of the continental Celtic territories of Gaul [France] and Iberia [Spain and Portugal], some of the displaced Celts travelled to unconquered Celtic lands such as Britain and Ireland. These have been identified with displaced Celts from Spain and Belgium, respectively, although this is conjecture [1]. The earliest pseudo-historical information that we have about Iron Age Celtic Ireland is from Carthaginian, Roman and Greek writers, who probably got their information from sailors who had been to the British Isles.

There are writings from the 4th century AD by the Roman Avienus which are thought to be based on accounts from an early Greek voyage in the 6th century BC. By far the most interesting historical account of these early times is that of the Greek Ptolemy. His map of Ireland, published in Geographia, was compiled in the second century AD, but based on an account from around AD. No surviving originals exist, but we do have a copy dating from AD. To see the map [1], click on the thumbnail on the left [56kB].

Historians have been able to use this fascinating map to identify some of the Celtic tribes living in Ireland at the time. Many of the names cannot be identified with known tribes particularly those in the west , and the names have been badly corrupted by being passed word-of-mouth. However, others are readily identifiable. Also on the map are the names of rivers and islands which can be identified with existing features.

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Background[ edit ] The ancient peoples now called “Celts” spoke a group of languages that had a common origin in the Indo-European language known as Common Celtic or Proto-Celtic. This shared linguistic origin was once widely accepted by scholars to indicate peoples with a common genetic origin in southwest Europe, who had spread their culture by emigration and invasion.

More recent genetic studies have indicated that various Celtic groups do not all have shared ancestry, and have suggested a diffusion and spread of the culture without necessarily involving significant movement of peoples. Carved stone ball from Towie in Aberdeenshire, dated from — BC [7] Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.

Its English form is modern, attested from In the late 17th century the work of scholars such as Edward Lhuyd brought academic attention to the historic links between Gaulish and the Brythonic —and Goidelic —speaking peoples, from which point the term was applied not just to continental Celts but those in Britain and Ireland. Then in the 18th century the interest in ” primitivism “, which led to the idea of the ” noble savage “, brought a wave of enthusiasm for all things Celtic and Druidic.

The “Irish revival” came after the Catholic Emancipation Act of as a conscious attempt to demonstrate an Irish national identity, and with its counterpart in other countries subsequently became the ” Celtic Revival “. Pre-Celtic periods[ edit ] The earliest archaeological culture that is conventionally termed Celtic, the Hallstatt culture, comes from the early European Iron Age, ca.

Nonetheless the art of this and later periods reflects considerable continuity, and some long-term correspondences, with earlier art from the same regions, which may reflect the emphasis in recent scholarship on “Celticization” by acculturation among a relatively static population, as opposed to older theories of migrations and invasions. Megalithic art across much of the world uses a similar mysterious vocabulary of circles, spirals and other curved shapes, but it is striking that the most numerous remains in Europe are the large monuments, with many rock drawings left by the Neolithic Boyne Valley culture in Ireland, within a few miles of centres for Early Medieval Insular art some 4, years later.

Other centres such as Brittany are also in areas that remain defined as Celtic today.

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Irish – Celtic Gifts We use only high quality papers in the reproduction, printing, embossing and bookbinding of our products, in keeping with the great Irish traditions dating back to the Book of Kells and beyond. All our journals can be personalised on front cover. Pictured left is a Claddagh Journal with a Celtic Gold embossed design on the padded cover.

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Columba, whose missionary work in the 6th century brought Celtic Christianity to Scotland. Now home to the ecumenical Iona Community, it remains a place of Christian pilgrimage. In AD, the Irish missionary St. Columba was exiled from his home country after being involved in a civil war and established a small monastic community on Iona. He died just four years later, but it is thanks to the work he began on Iona that Celtic Christianity spread throughout Scotland and eventually on to Europe.

Very little of Columba’s monastery survives today, but its basic layout is known thanks to the Life of Columba written by Abbot Adomnan of Iona in the late s.

Celtic art

Bibliography of Sources for Further Study An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. The Celtic people have mystified anthropologists and historians for generations. They were a non literate culture whose history and literature was preserved through oral tradition.

The only written records of their civilization are the texts left by classical authors, the first of which appear circa BCE. These accounts, inaccurate as they may be, are important in that they demonstrate that the Celts came into cultural contact, and sometimes competition, with the Greeks as well as the Romans.

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Venus is the Greek goddess of love, beauty and sexuality. According to Greek poet Hesiod, she was born when Cronus cut off Ouranos’ genitals and threw them into the sea, and from the aphros sea foam arose Aphrodite. Because of her beauty other gods feared that jealousy would interrupt the peace among them and lead to war, and so Zeus married her to Hephaestus, who was not viewed as a threat.

Her unhappiness in marriage caused her to frequently seek out the companionship of her lover Ares. Aphrodite also became instrumental in the Eros and Psyche legend, and later was both Adonis’ lover and his surrogate mother. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus. Myrtles, doves, sparrows, and swans are sacred to her. Origin Aphrodite has numerous equivalents:

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